HOW TO INCREASE YOUR INFLUENCE AT WORK? 💊💊💊










HOW TO INCREASE YOUR INFLUENCE AT WORK?
HOW TO INCREASE YOUR INFLUENCE AT WORK?

DETERMINE WHAT YOU
ARE TRYING TO ACHIEVE

WHAT ARE YOUR GOALS? WHERE DO YOU WANT TO BE IN 5 YEARS TIME? HOW ARE YOU GOING TO GET THERE

Understanding where you are at present, and where you want to be in the future, will help you focus your energy in the right places.

KNOW YOUR WORTH

THERE IS AN INHERENT LEVEL OF INFLUENCE THAT COMES WITH YOUR ROLE OR JOB TITLE


But instead of seeing this as your influence boundary, see it as your influence starting point.

BE CONFIDENT IN WHAT YOU HAVE TO OFFER

Your knowledge, experience & passion can
(and should) be used to your advantage.

INFLUENCE AND TRUST GO HAND IN HAND

If people do not trust your word or your abilities, you’ll be hard pressed to gain any influence over them.

HOW DO YOU CULTIVATE TRUST?

By being open & honest at all times.

CONSISTENCY IS KEY

IF YOU EXECUTE TASKS ACCURATELY, ON TIME, EVERY TIME


People will see you as someone they can rely on. The same goes for how you interact with people. If you consistently display good leadership qualities, your influence will increase.

ALWAYS REMEMBER


Actions speak louder than words. So if you say you’re going to do something, be sure to deliver.

STICK TO YOUR VALUES

HAVING INTEGRITY AND STICKING TO YOUR MORAL VALUES WILL SPEAK TO YOUR STRENGTH OF CHARACTER. INFLUENCERS DON’T BUCKLE UNDER PRESSURE.

They do the right thing – always.

LEARN FROM
THE BEST

IDENTIFY & OBSERVE

the top influencers in your organisation

EVEN BETTER

Build relationships with these influencers & use them as your mentors.

SHOW YOUR APPRECIATION


Nobody ever got to the top without a little help along the way.

SHOW GRATITUDE AND APPRECIATION.

Especially to those who have supported you, because being a credit “hog” is the quickest way to lose that support again.

GET PERSONAL

IT’S SIMPLE - INFLUENCERS NEED PEOPLE.

Relationship building is crucial.

REACH OUT CONNECT LISTEN HAVE EMPATHY OFFER YOUR SUPPORT


DON’T JUST STAND THERE.

YOU CAN’T JUST
WAIT AROUND,
expecting your influence to be acknowledged
through some form of cosmic or karmic power.
You have to be proactive about it.
MEET NEW PEOPLE TRY NEW THINGS
NEVER STOP LEARNING

FOCUS ON SOLUTION

IF THERE’S A PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED, DON’T WASTE ANY ENERGY TRYING TO PLACE BLAME…

Your focus should be on one thing, and one thing only: A SOLUTIO

OWN YOUR ACTIONS

ONE OF THE GREATEST TRAITS OF ANY INFLUENCER IS THE ABILITY TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR ACTIONS.

INFLUENCERS ARE ABLE TO LEARN FROM THEIR MISTAKES

They don’t wallow in self-pity, they come back fighting. Being able to motivate yourself in this way, also motivates those around you.

CONSIDER THE DIFFERENT
INFLUENCING STYLES

DO YOU RATIONALISE, ASSERT, NEGOTIATE, INSPIRE OR BRIDGE?

Research has shown that there are 5 major
influencing styles:
RATIONALISING: Using logic, facts & reasoning.
ASSERTING: Relying on laws, rules & authority.
NEGOTIATING: Looking for compromise.
INSPIRING: Providing encouragement.
BRIDGING: Attempting to unite people.
Understanding your own style, as well as that of those around
you, will help you identify which actions will be most effective.

AS A FINAL
THOUGHT…


Leadership is not about a title or a designation. It’s about impact, influence and inspiration. Impact involves getting results, influence is about spreading the passion you have for your work, and you have to inspire teammates and customers. – Robin S. Sharma writer, speaker and leadership expert.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HEALTHCARE 💊💊💊







INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HEALTHCARE









 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HEALTHCARE

INTRODUCTION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HEALTHCARE

Today, healthcare organizations worldwide depend on innovative clinical data and IT storage solutions to help improve healthcare workflows - from patient care to research. In fact, a recent report from BCC Research shows that the market for healthcare IT will continue to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 4.8 percent until 2019.

IMPROVING PATIENT CARE

BROOKLYN HOSPITAL CENTER


Despite being in the early stages of deployment, NetApp and Cisco's FlexPod is making a tremendous difference in the day-to-day activities of clinicians at TBHC. "With faster, more reliable access to patient records, our doctors and nurses can now spend more time treating patients," says TBHC's senior vice president and chief information officer Bill Moran,

HEALTH CHOICE NETWORK (HCN)


Now that HCN has moved virtual machines and data to the new NetApp array, latency is no longer an issue. Physicians and clinicians simply point, click, and quickly get the required data, minimizing delays and optimizing the quality of patient care.

DUPAGE MEDICAL GROUP

The ability to deliver services and medical images 24/7 with zero downtime enhances the delivery of patient care. "With our FlexPod environment, doctors and clinicians have the data and images they need any time of the day or night to enable delivery of the best care possible," says Tony Beaird, manager of server, storage, and IT security infrastructures at DuPage Medical Group

ADVANCING RESEARCH

BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE

"Our Discovery Research Cloud built on FlexPod allows our researchers to focus on medical science, not 11," says Alexander Izaguirre, CIO/CTO and vice president, Information Technology, Baylor College of Medicine. "They can easily build accurate cost estimates into their grant applications and get what they need without ever talking to an / person. They can begin their experiments sooner, get results faster and learn more during their time at Baylor."

INOVA TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE INSTITUTE

With the ability to efficiently deliver HPC resources on demand, ITMI can quickly launch new studies, including genomic studies and other investigations for health issues such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. "When experts can quickly access and analyze multiple datasets simultaneously, correlations may appear that could lead to new discoveries," says Aaron Black, director of Informatics at ITMI.

PROVIDING ACCESSIBLE HEALTHCARE THROUGH LOWER COSTS

INTERMOUNTAIN HEALTHCARE

Despite 30 percent annual data growth, Intermountain has been able to manage its infrastructure with the same number of employees "Intermountain has an initiative to provide healthcare coverage with rates rising no faster than the consumer price index plus / percent while delivering improved care," says Don Franklin, assistant vice president of Infrastructure and Operations for Intermountain Healthcare.

CHILDREN'S MIRACLE NETWORK HOSPITAL


Moving to FlexPod has also improved performance and uptime for websites and web-based applications crucial to fundraising efforts, maximizing the potential for donations. More money means more resources to care for sick children.

CONCLUSION

Whether it's directly improving patient care or helping lower costs to provide more access to healthcare, organizations are continuing to use it to move the needle for an industry that is at a pivotal point in innovation.

BLACK TEA DEFINITION AND BENEFITS 💊💊💊


BLACK TEA BENEFITS 
BLACK TEA BENEFITS

Black tea definition and benefits comes from the same plant family as the popular Green and Oolong teas. The main differences between these different types of tea is the level of oxidation in the plants. Black teas are left on the vine the longest before they are picked so they also have the most oxidization and can sometimes have a slightly bitter taste.

BLACK TEA BENEFITS:

MENTAL ALERTNESS



Black teas have the highest level of caffeine of all the teas. This can give a nice jolt and some additional alertness.

DENTAL HEALTH

Regular consumption of simple black tea has been known to reduce the buildup of plaque.

DECREASED STRESS

Black and green teas block the neurotransmitter GABA, leading to a decrease in stress response.

IMPROVED DIGESTION


Black tea reduces inflammation in the digestive tract, making it highly beneficial to anyone with acid reflux or ulcer issues.

CANCER PREVENTION

Research shows that antioxidants, like polyphenol and catechins, are the reasons teas are such a natural cancer inhibitor.

DECREASE RISK OF DIABETES


A study showed that long term, regular consumption of black tea can decrease the chances of developing type II diabetes.

Also we recommend check Black tea WIKI

SUTURE DEFINITION MEANING AND METERIALS 💊💊💊


SUTURE DEFINITION MEANING AND METERIALS

The Suture definition meaning and meterials describes any strand of meterial ulitized to ligate blood vessels or approximate tissues. The primary objective of dental suturing is to position and secure surgical flaps in order to promote optimal healing.



THE GOALS OF SUTURING ARE AS FOLLOWS:

  • Provide adequate tension for wound closure, but loose enough to prevent tissue ischemia and nercosis.
  • Preventing postoperative hemorrhage.
  • Reduce postoperative pain.
  • Maintain hemostasis.
  • Permit healing by primary intention.
  • Prevent bone exposure resulting in delayed healing and bone resorption.
  • Permit proper flap position.

SUTURE KIT INSTRUMENTS


A) Corn Suture Plies
B) Adson tissue pliers
C) Needle holder
D) Scissors














SUTURE KIT INSTRUMENTS




SUTURE MATERIAL DEFINITION



Suture is a thread used for uniting woudn edges. E.g. Suture Material
  • Silk
  • Catgut
  • Nylon
  • Stainless Steel Suture

QUALITIES OF SUTURE METERIAL

  • Adequate tensile strength
  • Functional Strength
  • Easy to handle
  • Flexibility & Elasticity
  • Knotable
  • Easily sterlisable
  • Uniformity
  • Non reactivity
  • Absorbility
  • Smooth surface

TYPES OF SUTURE MATERIAL

  • According to their behavior in tissue: Absorbable and Nonabsorbable
  • According to their structure: Monofilament and Multifilament
  • According to their origin: Natural or Synthetic

SUTURING TECHNIQUES


Beak of the needle holder grasps a suture needle. The needle holder’s beak face is crosshatched, ensuring stability of the needle during tissue penetration.






The needle holder’s beak face is crosshatched, ensuring stability of the needle during tissue penetration.

The needle holder’s beak face is crosshatched, ensuring stability of the needle during tissue penetration.
Correct position of the fingers for holding the needle holder.
Scissors are held the same way as needle holders.






Scissors are held the same way as needle holders.
Scissors are held the same way as needle holders.






Correct position of the fingers for holding the needle holder
Correct position of the fingers for holding the needle holder

BASIC SUTURING TECHNIQUES

  • Needle should be grasped with needle holder approximately 1/3rd distance from the eye and 2/3rd from the point.
  • Needle should be placed perpendicular to surface being entered and pushed through tissues following curvature of needle, rotating wrist.
  • Should not force through tissue may bend or break the needle.
  • Suture end should be pulled together and tied to approximate wound edges.
  • Never closed under tension.
  • Knot should never lie on incision line.
  • The needle enters 2-3 millimeters away from the margin of the flap (mobilie tissue) and exists at the same distance on the opposide side.
  • The two ends of the suture are then tied in a knot and are cut 0.8 centimetres above the knot.
  • To avoid tearing the flap, the needle must pass through the wound margins one at a time, and be atleast 0.5 centimetres away from the edges.
  • Over tightening of the suture must also be avoided (risk of tissue necrosis) as well as overlapping of wound eges when positioning the knot.
  • Tightly tied sutures canc ause ichemia and wound edge necrosis.
  • Gentle but firm knots and minimal wound tension will minimize these factors.
  • If wound becomes infected or there is an hematoma formation, removal of few sutures may offer satisfactory treatment.


BASIC SUTURING TECHNIQUES

  • Needle should be grasped with needle holder approximately 1/3rd distance from the eye and 2/3rd from the point.
  • Needle should be placed perpendicular to surface being entered and pushed through tissues following curvature of needle, rotating wrist.
  • Should not force through tissue may bend or break the needle.
  • Suture end should be pulled together and tied to approximate wound edges.
  • Never closed under tension.
  • Knot should never lie on incision line.
  • The needle enters 2-3 millimeters away from the margin of the flap (mobilie tissue) and exists at the same distance on the opposide side.
  • The two ends of the suture are then tied in a knot and are cut 0.8 centimetres above the knot.
  • To avoid tearing the flap, the needle must pass through the wound margins one at a time, and be atleast 0.5 centimetres away from the edges.
  • Over tightening of the suture must also be avoided (risk of tissue necrosis) as well as overlapping of wound eges when positioning the knot.
  • Tightly tied sutures canc ause ichemia and wound edge necrosis.
  • Gentle but firm knots and minimal wound tension will minimize these factors.
  • If wound becomes infected or there is an hematoma formation, removal of few sutures may offer satisfactory treatment.

SURGICAL KNOTTING TECHNIQUES







SURGICAL KNOTTING TECHNIQUES
SURGICAL KNOTTING TECHNIQUES

TYPES OF KNOTS

  • Square knot
  • Granny knot
  • Surgeon’s knot






TYPES OF KNOTS
TYPES OF KNOTS

SQUARE KNOT OR REEF KNOT

Square knot formed by wrapping the suture around needle holder once in opposite directions b/w ties. 3 ties are recommended.

GRANNY’S KNOT OR SLIP KNOT

Granny’s knot involves a tie in one direction followed by tie in same direction and third tie in opposite direction to square the knot and hold it permanently.

SURGEON’S KNOT

Surgeon’s knots is formed by 2 throws of suture around the needle holder on the first tie and one throw opposite direction in 2nd tie.

HOW TO TIE A KNOT

  • Suture is initially wrapped twice around the needle holder
  • The two ends of the suture are tightened to create a surgeon’s knot over the wound (double knot)
  • Safety knot, created by the single wrap of the suture in the counterclockwise direction as opposed to the first one.
  • Tightening of the safety knot over the initial surgeon’s knot.

HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 💊💊💊









HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 2
Hospital Acquired Infections definition are infections acquired in a hospital by patient who was admitted for a reason other than that infection. An infection occuring in a patient in a hospital or other health care facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility.

NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS ON PUBLIC HEALTH

Nosomical infections are widespread. They are important contributors to morbidity and mortality. They will become even more important as a public health problem with increasing economic and human impact.

CROWDING A MAJOR FACTOR

  • Increasing numbers and crowding of people. More frquirent impaired immunity (age, illness, treatments)
  • Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics contributed as emerging problem.

WHEN THE NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS MANIFEST?

Majority of such infections become evident during their stay in the Hospital or some times only after their discharge from the patient.

HOW AND WHEN HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS OCCUR?

Nosomical infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient’s original condition. Infections are considered Nosomical if they first appear 48 hourrs or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge.

COMMONLY OCCURING MICROORGANISMS IN HOSPITAL INFECTIONS








HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 3
COMMONLY OCCURING MICROORGANISMS IN HOSPITAL INFECTIONS

MICROORGANISMS AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS

The patient is exposed to a variety of microorganisms during hospitalization. Contact between the patient and a microorganisms does not by itself necessarily result in the development of clinical disease – other factors influence the nature.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella, Serratia, Proteus spp
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Enterococcus spp
  • Candida alibcans







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 4

RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

  • Hemophilus influenzae
  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Respiratory viruses
  • Fungi, Candida spp
  • Aspergillus’s spp

SKIN SEPSIS AND WOUNDS

  • Staph aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • E. Coli
  • Peoteus spp
  • Anaerobic bacteria
  • Enterococcus spp
  • Coagulase negative Staphylococcus







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 5

GASTRO INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

  • Salmonella serotypes
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Norwalk like viruses

DRUG RESISTANCE – NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

The likelihood of exposure leading to infection depends partly on the characteristics of the microorganisms, including resistance to antimicrobial agents, intrinsic virulence, and amount (inoculum) of infective meterial.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Within hours of admission, colonies of hospital strains of bacteria develop in the patient’s skin, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract. Risks factors for the invasion of colonizing pathogens can be categorized into 3 areas: iatrogenic, organizational, and patient-related







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 6
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

IATROGENIC RISK

Iatrogenic risk factors include pathogens on the hands of medical personnel, invasive procedures (eg. incubation and extended ventilation, indwelling vascular lines, urine catherization) and antibiotic use and prophylaxis

ORGANIZATIONAL

Organizational risk factors include contaminated air-conditioning systems, contaminated water systems, and staffing and physical layout of the facility (eg, nurse-to-patient radio, open beds close together).

PATIENT ASSOCIATED

  • Patient risk factors include the severity of illness, underlying immunocompromised state, and length of stay.
  • Prolonged stay in the hospital is a Major contributing factor.

ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION

A susceptible host and appropriate inoculum of infecting microorganism with an appropriate route of transmission contributed in majority of cases.

AIR-BORNE ROUTE

  • From respiratory tract via talking, coughing, sneezing
  • From the skin by natural shedding of the skin scales during would dressing or bed making.
  • From aerosols from equipment, respiratory apparatus, air conditioning plants.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 7

CONTACT SPREAD

  • In direct contact spread from person to person
  • By indirect contact spread via contaminated hands or equipment.
  • Clothing of staff.
  • Urinary catheters, contaminated with hands of the operator may introduce organisms or patients own flora from urethra may contribute to infection.

FOOD BORNE SPREAD

  • From hospital kitchen, or in special diets, infant feeds, kitchen, or commercial supplies.
  • Mechnical vectors flies, cockroaches or insects, or rodents act as a carriers of infection.

BLOOD BORNE SPREAD

  • The accidental transmission of infections as HIV, HBV, and HCV by needle stick injuries is documented.
  • Syphilis and malaria a concern in high prevalence areas.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 8

SELF INFECTIONS AND CROSS INFECTIONS

  • Lower bowel surgery
  • Self infection may occur due to flora from nose, Staphylococcus may be introduced into wounds.
  • Cross infection between patients occur due to spread of Staphylococcus or coli forms.

OTHER CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

Surgeons punctured surgical gloves, or moistened gown, imperfectly sterilized surgical instruments, or by airborne theatre dust. Faulty wound dressings may cause infections.

PATIENTS OWN FLORA TOO INFECTIVE

Self infection from patient’s own flora from Bowel can be major contributor of infections in bowel surgery.

OTHER SOURCE OF HOSPITAL INFECTIONS

Hospital environment, includes defective constructions.
People their behavior has great impact. Objects, food, water, Air in the hospital too contribute to infections.

CROSS INFECTION

Many different bacteira, viruses, fungi and parasites may cause Nosocmial infections. Infections may be caused by micro organism acquired from another person in the hospital (cross-infection) or may be caused by patient’s own flora (endogenous infection)







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 9

USED/CONTAMINATED SYRINGES A GREAT THREAT IN DEVELOPING WORLD

Some organisms may be acquired from an inanimate object or substances recently contaminated from another human source.

CHANGING TRENDS IN INFECTION ETIOLOGY

  • With advances in more elaborate surgery and intensive care, with combined use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs, Gram Negative bacteria increased in importance.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa gained importance in causing infection in compromised patients.
  • They exhibit natural resistance to antibiotics and antiseptics.

EMERGING INFECTIOUS AGENTS

A group of Microbes that played no role in the pas have emerged. Coagulase negative Staphylococci and Acinetobacter baumanii

MICROBES FROM ENVIRONMENT

The dissemination from environment such as cooling towers and hot water system is proving a threat with Legionella pneumophila causing infections of respiratory systems.

VIRUS TOO PLAY A IMPORTANT ROLE

  • Awareness on risk of Blood born viruses including: Hepatitis B, C and HIV essential.
  • CMV virus in association with organ and cellular transmission







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 10
Human Herpes simplex virus on colorful background. 3D illustration

IATROGENIC SPREAD A CONCERN

The possible risk of iatrogenic spread of Prions causing Creuzfeldt-Jacob disease is a concern.

COMMON SITES ASSOCIATED WITH ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS

  • Urinary Tract
  • Surgical wounds
  • Respiratory tract
  • Skin (especially burns)
  • Blood (bacteraemia)
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Central nervous system

COLLECTION OF DATA IN CROSS INFECTIONS

Always collect information and document information on:
  • Patient details
  • Site and extent of infection
  • Date of admission – operative procedure first recognition of infection
  • Specimen and laboratory isolates and typing results
  • Ward and staff details

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

The basic responsibility of any good hospital remain with establishment of good infection control policies, which can always be archieved with an infection control committee and an infection team.

INFECTION CONTROL COMMITTEE

Should meet regularly to formulate and update policies for the whole hospital on all matter which have bearing on infection control and to mange outbreaks of Nosocomial infection.

INFECTION CONTROL TEAM

  • Which will function under the guidance of infection control Doctor.
  • a Medically qualified Microbiologist, who will take responsibility of day to day for the policies formulated.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE

To do surveillance and infection monitoring of hygiene practices.
Educate the Medical and Paramedical staff on policies relating to prevention of infection, and safe procedures

INFECTION CONTROL NURSE

  • Is the key member of the team.
  • Maintain the close working relations between Microbiology Laboratory, different clinical services like laundry, pharmacy and engineering.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 11

ALL ARE CAMPAIGNERS OF SAFE PRACTICES

It is the minimal responsibility of the members to campaign on issues related to safe practices including hand washing.

DECONTAMINATION AND STERILIZATION

  • Fundamental importance lies with supply of sterile instruments, dressings and fluids.
  • a availability of single use syringes, needles, catheters and drainage bags to be assured and planned for the regular supplies.

ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES

No touch technique when dealing with sterile equipment coupled with strict personal hygiene.
a strict rules laid when dealing the patients in the operation theatre and other procedures such as wound dressing and insertion of IV and urinary catheters

CLEANING AND DISINFECTION

  • Basic cleaning, waste disposal, and laundry carry priority.
  • The use of chemical disinfectants for wall floors, and furniture is warranted in special circumstances, such as spillages, of body fluids from patients with blood born viral infections.

CARE OF MOP HEADS AND OTHER ITEMS

  • All the Mop heads and cloths used in crucial areas should be heat disinfected and stored in dry places after use.
  • Bed pans washers and disinfectants and dishwashers should be monitored to ensure reliable performance.

SKIN DISINFECTION AND ANTISEPTICS

Hand washing is a most important procedure which should be practiced by health care worker, gram-ve bacteria on the hands of the staff is an important factor in the spread of hospital infection.

HAND WASHING

Thorough hand washing after any procedure involving nursing care or close contact with the patient is essential.
Alchool based hand antiseptics gaining importance where washing with water and soap are not practicable.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 12
HAND WASHING

WEARING A GLOVE

Gloves may be worn for any dirty contact procedure such as emptying a urinary cans, or bed pans, however it should not be forgotten gloved hand may also become colonized by transient hospital flora.

DISINFECTION POLICIES

  • All the hospitals should create disinfection policies which suit circumstances and economic resources.

  • The procedures and products should have a limited range of options, and chemicals to be used only in desired circumstances.

  • The policies should take into consideration surgical instruments, heat disinfection, Laundry, crockery and cleaning of floors and furniture.

IMPORTANCE OF STAFF

  • Staff should have well undrestood responsibilities.
  • Effective implementation of policy requires, motivated staff, with training.
  • Regular updating as new methods become available.

PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS

  • Wide spread and haphazard use of antibiotics hasten emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
  • Rational antibiotic prophylaxis plays an important role in infection control.
  • Antibiotic policy limits the use of broad spectrum agents, and is important in both prophylaxis and treatment.

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

Different activities within the hospital require different degrees of protection to staff and patients.

In operation theatre the wearing of sterile gowns, gloves, head gear and face mask minimizes the shedding of microorganisms.

BARRIER NURSING

Barrier nursing is highly essential when soiling of clothing is anticipated, and dealing with communicable diseases, eg in EBOLA and MARBURG infections.

OTHER MEASURES

  • Gloves, face mask, and goggles are indicated in specific procedures.
  • The use of the above should confirm to international standards and the staff should be trained in their proper use and disposal.

ISOLATION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Practiced as a source isolation and to protect the susceptible or immunocompromised.

It needs a highly disciplined approach by all staff to ensure that none of the barriers to transmission are breached.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 13

CUBICLE ISOLATION

  • In which patient nursed alone in a room separated by door and corridor from other patients confers a substantial measures of protection.
  • Desirable to supply clean, filtered air is supplied to room with facilities for own toilet and washing facilities.

CRITICAL SITUATIONS

In some critical situations such as bone marrow transplant units where air borne contamination with environmental fungal spores is a problem the efficiency of an air filtration may be increased and laminar airflow maintained as barrier around the patient.

TREXLER ISOLATOR

Stringent isolation such as a plastic tent or Trexler isolator, is required only for patients with highly contagious infections.

HOSPITAL BUILDING AND DESIGN

Routine maintenance of the Hospital building is important, ensuring that surfaces wherever possible are smooth, impervious and easy to clean.
All contructions around the existing Hospitals generate fungal spores and bacterial spores with have impact on specialized units serving immunocompromised patients.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 14
HOSPITAL BUILDING AND DESIGN

LEGGIONNAIRES’S DISEASE PREVENTION

The risk of Legionnaires disease is reduced by regular flushing all outlets and installing water supplies that ciculate below 20°C for the cold and above 60°C for the hot circuit.

EQUIPMENT

  • All the equipment in contact with patients need decontamination and sterilization.
  • Heat is a preferred method.
  • However heat sensitive to the sterilized with chemical and other newer emerging methods.

PERSONNEL CARE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS

All health care workers should screened for possible communicable diseases before employment, and offered immunization against Hepatitis B Viral infection.







HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS DEFINITION 15
PERSONNEL CARE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS

NEEDLE STICK INJURIES

Who sustain needle stick injuries from potentially contaminated sources should have access to advise and post exposure prophylaxis with antiviral agents or immunization.

MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENT?

Routine Microbiological monitoring of the environment is of little benefit, but monitoring of the air conditioning plants, and machinery used for disinfection and sterilization is essential.

SCREENING OF STAFF OR PATIENTS

Microbiological screening of staff and patients not undertaken routinely, but it may be needed for specific purpose to detect carriers or MRSA and Hepatitis viruses in those performing some types of surgery or where transmission to patients has occurred.

SURVEILLANCE AND ROLE OF MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES

The detection and identification of hospital infection incidents or outbreaks rely on the laboratory data that alert the infection control team to unusual cluster of infection called as allert organism system.

SURVEILLANCE

Identification of MRSA & ESBL and timely information to clinicians will help the ongoing events in the Hosptial warrant to track the events on source of outbreaks and action to control the similar situations in future.

PRACTICAL TEACHING TO STAFF

Regular visits to wards are also important to record data on infected patients from whom no speciments have been received and to respond to problems as they occur.
Such visits will bring in grater human interaction with paramedical staff and deliver the practical teaching.

EFFICACY OF INFECTION CONTROL

The following measures will certainly control the infections:
  • Sterilization
  • Hand washing
  • Closed drainage systems for urinary catheters
  • Intravenous catheter care
  • Peri operative antibiotic prophylaxis for contaminated wounds, and care of equipment used in respiratory therapy.

WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT

  • Effective surveillance and action by the infection control team have shown to reduce infection rates.
  • One important role of the team is to monitor compliance and practices known to be effective.

SAVING THE COSTS IN PREVENTION INFECTIONS

With raising economic costs in running safe hospitals eliminate the many rituals or less effective practices that they may even increase the incidence or cost of cross infection.
Also we recommend check Hospital-acquired infection WIKI